Manuscript submissions and assessment

Three hard copies and one electronic copy of a manuscript (including photocopies of all artwork) should be submitted to:

Dr Phyllis Herda, RAL Editorial Board Chair
School of Social Sciences
University of Auckland
Private Bag 92019
New Zealand

Phone: +64 9 923 7111

Please follow the style instructions herein before submitting your manuscript.

Submission of accepted manuscript
When manuscripts have been accepted for publication, authors are requested to provide an electronic copy in the format specified here, either on disc or as an e-mail attachment, and one identical hard copy. Please save your electronic copy either as a Microsoft Word document or, if this is not available, in RTF (Rich Text Format).

Following review by two qualified referees, edited manuscripts are usually sent to authors by post and general comments communicated by email. Printer’s proofs are not sent to authors; they are carefully scrutinised in house.

House style


New Zealand spelling (which follows British spelling in most cases) should be be used throughout the manuscript and on any artwork. The word endings -ise (not -ize) and -isation (not -ization) as in “realise” and “civilisation”, -our (not -or) as in 'honour', -re (not -er) as in 'centre' etc., are preferred, except as appropriate in direct quotes. (If you set “language” to New Zealand or Australian English, you will be prompted.)


  • The manuscript (including references and the separate document of endnotes) must be 1.5 spaced and left justified.
  • All pages should be numbered at the centre bottom.
  • Single quotation marks should be used for glosses, double quotation marks for direct quotations. Avoid using quotation marks to indicate irony.
  • Italics should be used for all non-English terms; they may be used selectively for emphasis. Do not use the bold or underline fonts for emphasis.
  • Use endnotes (not footnotes), use them sparingly and create them as a separate document. Do not use the footnote or endnote functions of your word processing software. Numbering for endnotes should be in superscript, following any punctuation, e.g., island.4
  • Do not use the Endnote™ bibliographic software or any other bibliographic software to create citations and reference lists.
  • Acknowledgements should be placed at the end of the main text and before the list of references.
  • References to all and only works cited follow the text or the acknowledgements.

Indigenous Words and Phrases

All indigenous terms should be followed by an English gloss in single quotations marks when they first appear in the text. Subsequent use of the gloss is the preferred option, unless the indigenous term is a concept central to the paper or used frequently.

Artwork & photographs

The page size of the RAL is A4 (210 x 297 mm or c.8.25 x 11.7 in). Figures and Tables must be designed so that they are accommodated within a 150 mm wide, 220 mm high one-column format.

Portrait layout is preferable whenever possible. In general, numbers in Tables and text in Figures must be clear and readable (minimum font is 6 pts).

All maps, photographs, figures, graphs, charts, etc., are designated as Figures. Figures should be submitted as EPS or TIF files at 300dpi for continuous tone or 600dpi for line illustrations.

For photographs, either colour or black and white originals negatives or positives or a digital file should be supplied; the latter are preferable. Generally all photos are printed as black and white images. The digital files should be IBM PC Tiff format and at 300dpi. Images should be sized at the maximum size the image will appear.

File Size guide: an 18 x 12 cm greyscale image @ 300 dpi will be 2.87 MB; the same image as an 18 x 12 cm RGB image @ 300 dpi will be 8.62 MB in size.

Tabular material appears as Tables included in the text. Tables should be simply designed to avoid vertical lines, and have clear, concise column/row headings. Captions are positioned above Tables.

A list of numbered Figures and Tables, along with captions, should be provided on a separate page after References Cited. High quality photocopies may be substituted in the initial submission.


1. Main Headings: regular font and left justified, i.e.,

The Human Environment

2. Sub-headings: italicised and also left justified, i.e.,

Probabilities and Possibilities

In both cases, the text begins on a new line, without indent.

3. If further sub-headings are required they are also italicised, left-justified, and followed by a full stop. The text then begins on the same line, i.e.,

Testing the Theory. A recent controversy has erupted over... [etc].

Numerals and Measurements

Spell out numbers up to ten; thereafter use numerals, except at the beginning of sentences. For measurements, place a space between the number and the measurement abbreviation, for example, 20 kg.


Note the following forms: 29 March 1989, 1840s, 1956-57. A.D. precedes a date year; B.C. follows it (e.g., from 500 B.C. to A.D. 2000).


Note the punctuation of the following forms: Mr, Mrs, Dr, Rd, St, i.e., when the abbreviation ends with the letter that ends the full word there is no full stop; otherwise, a full stop should follow, e.g., the Rev., Prof., Fig. (but Figs), no., pp., etc.,. Also note “e.g.,” and “i.e.,” above.


Endnotes should be used sparingly and with discretion. Again, do not use the endnote function of your word processing programmes, but rather create the notes as a separate document.

Linguistic Symbols

When submitting manuscripts with specialised phonetic/linguistic symbols, please send the accompanying digital symbol/unicode fonts [IBM PC compatible] with the digital manuscript.

Citations are embedded in the text

References to the literature should be cited in the text by name of author, year of publication, and page or pages as appropriate in one of the following forms:

1. The standard citation form is (Jones 1976:55) or (Smith 1876:449-67). Separate multiple works in a single citation by commas, e.g., (Jones 1976:55, Smith 1876:449-67), unless semi-colons are needed to avoid ambiguity, (e.g., Jones 1976:55, 1977:108; Smith 1876:257,859). Note that there is no space after the colon or p./pp.

2. If the citation refers to a work that has just been previously cited in the same paragraph, the form (p.34) or (pp.34-37) may be used. However, if more than one author has been cited in that paragraph, use the form set out in (1) above.

Do not in any case use ibid., op cit., passim, loc cit.

For works with two authors, cite both names; for works of more than two authors, use the first author’s name and et al., but provide all authors’ names in the list of references.


The following format should be followed for the References Cited section. Please note spacing, capitalisation, punctuation and order of the elements.

For journal articles:
Driver, Marjorie G., 1988. Cross, sword, and silver: The nascent Spanish colony in the Mariana Islands. Pacific Studies, 11:21-52.
Morton, John, 2003. Abortive redemption? Apology, history and subjectivity in Australian reconciliation. Journal of the Polynesian Society 112(3):238-59.

For books:
Blackwood, Beatrice, 1935. Both Sides of Buka Passage. Oxford: Clarendon.
Wessen, Albert F., Antony Hooper, Judith Huntsman, Ian Prior, and Clare Salmond, 1992. Migration and Health in a Small Society: The Case of Tokelau. Oxford: Clarendon Press. (Cited as Wessen et al. 1992)

For articles/chapters in edited books:
Gunson, Neil, 1977. The coming of foreigners. In N. Rutherford (ed.), Friendly Islands: A History of Tonga. Melbourne: Oxford University Press, pp.90-113.
Howard, Alan, and John Kirkpatrick, 1989. Social organization. In A. Howard and R. Borofsky (eds), Developments in Polynesian Ethnology. Honolulu: University of Hawai‘i Press, pp.47-94.

For theses, dissertations, papers presented:
Herlihy, Joan, 1981. Always We are Last: A Study of Planning, Development and Disadvantage in Melanesia. Unpublished Ph.D. thesis, Australian National University.

For manuscripts:
Buck, Peter, MS. 1927-28. Field notebooks. Seven volumes. Bernice P. Bishop Museum, Honolulu.

Please do not use bibliographic software such as Endnote™ for creating your citations and references.  The hidden functions of such software create editorial difficulties.