Multiple-Group Analysis and Measurement Invariance

Course dates

Auckland: 14 February 2018



This course assumes that participants have a basic of structural equation modelling and experience with using Mplus. Participants who do not possess these are strongly encouraged to attend the 2-day workshop on Introduction to Structural Equation Modelling with Mplus first.



Professor Gordon Cheung


Course outline 

One of the crucial issues in cross-group, in particular cross-cultural studies, is the equivalence/ invariance of measurements across groups. In the past, researchers assumed that the psychometric properties of measurement are the same across groups when they conducted cross-group comparisons. However, such an assumption is usually invalid in cross-cultural studies.

This 1-day workshop provides:

  1. the basic concepts behind measurement invariance and the assumptions involved
  2. comparison of various methods in testing measurement invariance
  3. Mplus syntax for testing measurement invariance
  4. application of measurement invariance in theory development in cross-cultural studies. Hands-on data analysis with examples will be provided.


Cheung GW (2008). Testing equivalence in the structure, means, and variances of higher-order constructs with structural equation modeling. Organizational Research Methods, 11, 593–613.

Cheung GW & Lau RS (2012). A direct comparison approach for testing measurement invariance. Organizational Research Methods, 15, 167–198.

Cheung GW & Rensvold RB (1999). Testing factorial invariance across groups: A reconceptualization and proposed new method. Journal of Management, 25(1), 1–27.

Cheung GW & Rensvold RB (2002). Evaluating Goodness-of-Fit Indices for Testing Measurement Invariance. Structural Equation Modeling Journal, 9(2), 233–255.

Vandenberg RJ & Lance CE (2000). A review and synthesis of the measurement invariance literature: suggestions practices, and recommendations for organizational research. Organizational Research Methods, 3(1): 4–69.


Register for the course